Tuesday, July 7, 2020
Running head: ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING Organizational Learning: The Use of an LMS to promote e-Learning in an Organization Candice Henderson North Carolina State University EAC 582 Ã¢â¬â Organization and Operation of Training and Development Programs December 4, 2009 Organizational Learning: The Use of an LMS to promote e-Learning in an Organization Introduction E-Learning has made it possible for organizations to enable, extend, and enhance learning to millions of workers worldwide. A learning management system (LMS) is a software application or Web-based technology used to plan, implement, and assess a specific learning process. Typically, a learning management system provides a Learning and Development department with a way to create and deliver content, monitor student participation, and assess student performance. Learning activities in an LMS may include instructor-led training classes, webinars, job aids and dozens of e-learning modules addressing the full gamut of profes sional and personal development Ã¢â¬â from running a meeting and leading teams, strategy development, to time management and technical skills. A learning management system can provide students with the ability to use interactive features such as threaded discussions, video conferencing, and discussion forums. Research by Bersin Associates shows that in 2009, more than 70% of large companies have an LMS in place (Bersin, Howard, OÃ¢â¬â¢Leonard, Mallon, 2009). A successful Learning and Development team should spend a significant amount of time and resources on marketing e-Learning via the learning management system to its audience (the organization). The primary goal is to increase engagement and excitement around learning, while more specific goals include driving traffic to the learning management system (LMS) to get the maximum value from the investment in technology. In this paper, we will discuss the use of a learning management system (LMS) to promote e-learning in organizations in regards to change management in the implementation phase and the resulting impact on the organization. Self E-learning of any type represents a change. Even though it might be as simple as the replacement of an instructor-led class with an online course or an Excel spreadsheet with an elaborate LMS, it still is a change in the organization. Learners used to instructors often resent having to learn from a computer, and trainers who feel valued for their instructional skills often feel threatened. Managers who have always controlled the access to training and information often feel undermined when learners can access learning resources anytime and anywhere. The organization assumes that it knows whatÃ¢â¬â¢s good for the learners. The organizations themselves do not change Ã¢â¬â people (learners, managers, and colleagues) change (Dublin, 2006). People rather than processes are the central focus of any successful change management and communication approach ( Steel, 2005). Change management is the discipline of managing people through the specific transition that the change represents. It is about communication and exchange, dialogue and questions, attitudes and behaviors, leadership and support (Dublin, 2006). Barry Oshry talks about system blindness that some organizations may have whether it be spatial, temporal, relational, process, and uncertainty (2007). He states that our consciousness is shaped by the structure and processes of the systems we are in. Having this system blindness can impair the organization as it tries to undergo the change. What can organizations do to encourage change and promoting learning? Oshry (2007) suggests engaging senior leaders, Ã¢â¬Å"TopsÃ¢â¬ in communicating the changes. A firm communication plan has to be put into place from the Ã¢â¬Å"TopsÃ¢â¬ to the Ã¢â¬Å"MiddlesÃ¢â¬ to the Ã¢â¬Å"BottomsÃ¢â¬ . Author Lance Dublin identifies three cyclic stages of change communications that an or ganization must go through: inform, involve, and integrate (2006). Informing involves generating awareness through information and messaging activities. Learners, managers and the organization need to be informed about the problem and e-learning solution. The purpose is to make sure the messages you want to be heard are broadcast widely and in ways they will be recognized, recalled and remembered (Dublin, 2006). Examples of specific activities could include newsletters, presentations, e-mails, webcasts and speeches. The Ã¢â¬Å"involveÃ¢â¬ step includes finding ways to engage the learners, managers and organization in experiencing the e-learning solution, to give them a chance try it out for themselves, ask questions and form their own opinions (Dublin, 2006). The purpose is to let them Ã¢â¬Å"put their hands on itÃ¢â¬ and personalize the solution and have it become theirs. Specific activities can include tutorial videos, trial tests, department meetings, expos, fairs and ro ad shows. The last step, Ã¢â¬Å"integrateÃ¢â¬ , is critical to make e-learning an ongoing and integral component of organizational processes, systems and business initiatives, but not be something foreign or forced. The long-term success of e-learning depends on whether it becomes part of the organizational culture, fully integrated into learners and managers work life. The purpose is to ensure it becomes so well-accepted and integrated that, like e-mail, it becomes critical to individuals and the organization but invisible. (Dublin, 2006). Recognizing the LMS platform as one for ongoing learning and development by the leaders of the entire organization helps encourage buy-in from the rest of the population. It is important that the business case for e-learning be clearly defined and communicated throughout the entire organization. 21st Century HRD In the last few years, modern corporate training has undergone tremendous change. In addition to the need to rationalize budget s, consolidate and reorganize the LD function, and deal with rapidly changing business conditions, organizations are now dealing with a real change in the way training takes place. Managing corporate learning has come a long way from generic spreadsheets tracking which employees took classes, when, and where or simple databases kept in Microsoft Access or through another database system. No more are the files of papers in the file cabinet that tracked rosters, completion rates, and learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ transcripts. The age of the learning management system is here in full effect, albeit with some progress let to still be achieved. While learning management systems grow more powerful and more popular, their origins are relatively humble. Software to manage learning within organizations has been around in one form or another ever since computers made their way into the workplace, says Bersin (as quoted by Sussman, 2005). Training processes are so complicated now that companies just can no longer manage them effectively manually. According to Bersin, LMSs got their biggest boost in the late 1990s, as electronic courseware became enormously popular (Sussman, 2005). Older learning management systems were designed to track in-person classroom teaching, but they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to manage self-serve CD-ROM courses. Thus came web-based learning management systems that were able to handle a variety of media to support learning. Now that an LMS is put into place and the training/LD department has the courses developed, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s next in deployment? David van Adelsberg and Edward Trolley describe how to run training like a business (1999). They state that the underlying concept of running training like a business is measuring what matter (Van Adelsberg Trolley, 1999). Efficiency and effectiveness are what matter. Efficiency measures quantifiable numbers Ã¢â¬â total costs, utilization rates, number of participants, etc. While efficiency measures are typ ically associated with processes, effectiveness measures are more so related to what the customers perceive and what they gain in tangible value. One of the essential responsibilities of organizational development professionals is to communicate the value of what they can deliver (Howard, 2009). According to McLagan (1985) as quoted by McLean, organization development focuses on assuring healthy inter- and intra- unit relationship and helping groups initiate and manage change (2005). Training has to meet its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs in order to have a tangible, lasting impact on the business. The role of LD and HR is to carefully monitor the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s learning culture, and implement new processes and systems that improve the learning culture. Any change in process requires a heavy dose of change management. It is important to consider employee, management and leadership culture in any major learning strategy (Bersin Mallon, 2009). E-learning products by themselves do not often contribute to efficiency; they must be effectively administered and managed, which requires continuing attention on the part of the sponsoring organization (Codone, 2001). Research In undergoing a push towards online learning, a Learning and Development team starts out by developing an understanding of its internal customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and motives, and then showing internal customers how the online courses can make a difference to them in ways that matter. When marketing from the perspective of what motivates people, the group knows that it has a greater likelihood of engaging learners (Howard, 2009). The team has to show how the LMS will support practices, policies, programs and systems in the organization. Explaining the numerous benefits of utilizing an LMS for e-learning to the key stakeholders along with the entire organization will help create buy-in and encourage voluntary participation. Companies are realizing substantial direct and indirect savings throug h the use of LMSs. For example, web-based systemsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to serve up e-learning course materials to any user with Internet access substantially reduces the costs associated with classroom training (instructor fees, multiple copies of materials, and travel and dining expenses). Some people in remote locations arenÃ¢â¬â¢t in areas where face-to-face training is possible. Using an LMS becomes the quickest way, and the most effective platform to deploy e-learning classes. Among reasons for customer satisfaction with web-based systems: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Most customers have few qualms about letting corporate training information reside Ã¢â¬Å"outside the firewall. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to integrate with web-based courseware. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Users are required to provide much less IT support than would be needed with an application run on their own servers. In addition, most online LMSs are browser based, reducing or eliminating the need for additional client-side software. Chang es and updates to that software are automatically available to all users. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Any employee with web access can access the LMS, regardless of location. According to a recent study on LMS customer satisfaction, Bersin provides results from the study that leaves little doubt as to whether LMSs deliver tangible benefits to users (Sussman, 2005). When asked whether LMS drives productivity in their organizations, more than two-thirds of the respondents gave their systems high marks. The clearest example of productivity gains can be seen in the reduction of administrative overhead. Other major advantages are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Knowledge is no longer needed to be taken from the shelf of the training department, brushed off and reviewed, because e-learning is immediate and provides up-to-date information. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Research shows that the major reason for losing employees is that the employees feel that their companies do not invest in their professional development. E-learning can help in overco ming this problem, since it does not only tackle the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ need to develop new knowledge and skills, but also provides learning on-demand. E-learning is less intrusive to the daily work duties of the employees and the company, which results in saving both time and money. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Convenience and portability: E-learning is very suitable for all kinds of employees since the courses are easily accessible at anytime and anyplace. Moreover, it is self-paced, which means that you can control the speed. You can also download the materials, read them, keep them and reuse them whenever necessary. (Alshara Sharo, n. d. ) HRD Practice To aid the instructional design process, an organization must spend a significant amount of time on performance consulting. Performance consultingÃ¢â¬ is a needs assessment process that must be completed to identify the root cause of the business problem. Working with the line of business, performance consultants diagnose the business problem and ass ess the needs, and then work with instructional designers to develop, launch, manage and assess the training solution. According to the case study by Bersin Associates, author Chris Howard (2009) states that performance consulting does not presume that the solution is training. A skills gap analysis is utilized to determine if training, performance management or some other approach is required to solve the business problem. Performing a needs assessment identifies 4 types of needs Ã¢â¬â business, performance, training, and work environment needs (Robinson Robinson, 1995). Training needs identify what people must learn if they are to perform successfully. In order to reach the overall business needs, the training and work environment needs along with the performance needs are combined. One common business need which has become a huge driver behind the current LMS growth spurt is regulatory compliance. From the financial services industry to pharmaceutical manufacturing to oil refining, businesses are facing having to comply with a raft of regulations involving financial integrity, health and safety, environmental protection, employment rights, and so forth. Many of those regulations mandate that a company be able to demonstrate that employees have been appropriately trained to meet them. With increased scrutiny from stakeholders, regulatory agencies and the media, companies must be able to demonstrate that their senior management, sales force, and other employees are fully versed in compliance laws and business ethics. Thus organizations have turned more to e-learning as an option for completing training on a wider scale. Recommendations To leverage the LMS to its full potential, the case study presented by Chris Howard shows that a robust HR information system (HRIS) in conjunction with LMS implementation is paramount. Utilizing an HRIS that ties into the LMS allows the organization to link learning into performance. Current systems automate t he administration of training, but they do not necessarily provide guidance on whether the right kind of training is being delivered to the right people, says Adam Miller, CEO of Cornerstone, a popular online LMS provider (Sussman, 2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Companies want to know where theyÃ¢â¬â¢re strong, where theyÃ¢â¬â¢re weak, where they have gaps in their talent, whether that talent is misaligned with corporate goals, or if performance isnÃ¢â¬â¢t meeting expectations in some areas. The answer for them is performance-driven learning,Ã¢â¬ says CornerstoneÃ¢â¬â¢s Miller. The LMS can have hooks and handles into an existing performance management system or, better yet, the LMS can include a performance management component. Ã¢â¬ (Sussman, 2005). Research by Bersin Associates shows that of the more than 70% of large companies in 2009 that have an LMS in place, 1/3 of these companies are considering replacing or upgrading these systems with integrated talent management systems (Ber sin, Howard, OÃ¢â¬â¢Leonard, Mallon, 2009). Organizations now have teams that manage learning, performance management, assessment, leadership development, succession management and career development in a single group. Employees are no longer as Ã¢â¬Å"people to trainÃ¢â¬ but, rather, Ã¢â¬Å"talent to manageÃ¢â¬ and organizations want to align their Learning Development investments with the talent management strategies needed to grow or improve the business. Leveraging internal resources for development and delivery of the solutions is part of an effective LD department. These partnerships encompass not only local training delivery resources and functional SMEs, but also senior management, IT and HR. The team-oriented approach results in higher levels of engagement and better learning outcomes. Another key part of the implementation phase of the change management process, with regard to the technology infrastructure, is the importance of complete and thorough testing . An incremental approach to rolling out the new learning management system has worked better than releasing the entire platform on an organization. Listening to user feedback is critical as the company transitions from a decentralized, non-technology approach to a centralized shared-services learning organization and an enterprise LMS implementation (Howard, 2009). Learning organizations also need to be aware of the operational demands of their audiences. Through trial and error, the case study presented that giving employees too many training activities will create interruptions in operations, which can impact customer service (Howard, 2009). Time management issues and balancing the needs of learning versus operations must be forefront in the minds of learning professionals and the organization. Conclusion The fundamental principles of training have not changed Ã¢â¬â people still need deep levels of skills, experience and practice to become proficient with any role in an org anization. New and experienced employees need continuous training to stay current on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products, processes and markets. Managers and leaders need coaching, mentoring and feedback (Bersin Mallon, 2009). The implementation of a comprehensive learning management system (LMS) is one of the keys to the success of promoting e-Learning to an organization, enabling learning and organizational development to deliver training programs to a geographically dispersed audience with 24 / 7 learning needs. The process is one of significant organizational change and should not be taken lightly. Organizations must plan for the change accordingly and apply an appropriate framework for managing the change at the organizational level. Utilizing strategies to manage the change process during an implementation will help organizations better prepare for resistance from employees. According to authors Dawson Jones (2003) as quoted by Caroline Steel, people affected by the change d onÃ¢â¬â¢t feel part of it: participants in the change need to feel part of it so that they have the motivation, skills and knowledge to adapt to the change (2005). Communication is central (Stace Dunphy, 1994). It needs to be consistent, aligned to the vision, and must involve powerful mechanisms for . listening. Businesses have challenged training to become markedly more effective and efficient. When you run training like a business, organizations have to provide a contribution that will fulfill the business strategies of customers both tangibly and substantially. Because e-learning provides numerous benefits and advantages to the business world and its workforce, organizations are able to meet its business needs along with satisfying any governmental requirements. References Alshara, O. , Sharo, M. (n. d. ). The Use of E-learning in Non-educational Organizations: a Preliminary Study of the UAE. Higher Colleges of Technology, Jordan University of Science and Technology. R etrieved December 4, 2009 from https://www-vs. informatik. uni-ulm. de/de/intra/bib/2007/IMCL/papers/240_Final_Paper. pdf. Bersin, J. , Howard, C. , OÃ¢â¬â¢Leonard, K. , Mallon, D. (2009). Learning Management Systems 2009. Bersin Associates. Bersin, J. , Mallon, D. (2009). The Enterprise Learning Framework: A Modern Approach to Corporate Training. Bersin Associates. Codone, S. (2001). An E-Learning Primer. Raytheon Interactive, Pensacola. 1 Ã¢â¬â 12. Retrieved December 1, 2009 from https://citeseerx. ist. psu. edu/viewdoc/download? doi=10. 1. 1. 129. 9294rep=rep1type=pdf Dublin, L. (2006). E-Learning Success: Engaging Organizations, Motivating Learners. Chief Learning Officer . Retrieved November 30, 2009 from https://www. clomedia. com/features/2006/October/1577/index. php. Howard, C. (2009). Extending the Reach of the Learning Organization. Case Study, Bersin Associates, 1 33. McLean, G. N. , (2005). Organization development: Principles, processes, performance. San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler. 1 32. Oshry, B. (2007). Seeing systems: Unlocking the mysteries of organizational live. San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler, 4 Ã¢â¬â 55. Robinson, D. G. , Robinson, J. C. (1995). Performance Consulting: Moving Beyond Training. San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler, 3 Ã¢â¬â 258. Steel, C. (2005). Game for change? Balancing an enterprise-level LMS implementation. Teaching Education Development Institute. The University of Queensland. Retrieved December 2, 2009 from https://ascilite. org. au/conferences/brisbane05/blogs/proceedings/74_Steel. pdf. Sussman, D. (2005, July). The LMS Value. Learning and Development, 43 45. Retrieved October 26, 2009 from https://www. astd. org/NR/rdonlyres/1116A810-A599-4320-95C9-125C31914CB2/0/Jul2005_technology_astdmember. pdf. Van Adelsberg, D. , Trolley, E. (1999). Running training like a business: Delivering unmistakeable value. San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler, 20 Ã¢â¬â 46.
Wednesday, July 1, 2020
Cognitive Dissonance Examples Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive dissonance occurs when a person's beliefs conflicts with other previously held beliefs. It describes the feelings of discomfort resulting from having the two conflicting beliefs. In order to reduce or possibly eliminate the dissonance, something must change because of the discrepancy between the person's beliefs and behaviors. A psychologist, Leon Festinger, wrote a book titled A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. In it, he proposed the centerpiece of the theory was on how people would try to reach internal consistency, meaning that people must need their beliefs and behaviors are consistent with one another. This need is actually internalized and people try to ensure this consistency. They want to avoid inconsistency because it, along with conflicting beliefs, leads to discomfort and disharmony. He compares it to hunger leading to activity that would lead to reducing the hunger. It is a powerful antecedent condition which leads to activity oriented toward reducing dissonance. Most psychologists are not used to dealing with it because there is a different motivation behind it. Desiring food because one is hungry is more understandable than cognitive dissonance. Different factors affect the amount of dissonance a person experiences, one of which includes how much value is placed on a particular belief and the degree of inconsistency between those beliefs. Personal cognitions, such as those about self, seem to cause more dissonance. The importance of the cognitions will also have an effect. The things a person places a higher value will result in stronger dissonance. The greater the strength of dissonance will lead to more pressure to relieve any feelings of discomfort. Cognitive dissonance can be very influential on behaviors and actions. Examples of Cognitive Dissonance: 1. A man places a value on being environmentally responsible, but purchases a car that does not get very good gas mileage. He is conflicted between trying to save the environment and driving a gas-guzzler. To help reduce the dissonance, he may sell the car or use a bike or bus for transportation sometimes. 2. A common occurrence leading to dissonance is related to regular purchasing decisions. Most people believe that make good choices when buying things. When a product turns out to be defective or not meet their expectations, it conflicts with our feelings believing we make good purchasing decisions. 3. People who smoke know that it is bad for their health but continue to smoke anyway. They may even eat right and exercise as a method to reduce the dissonance. They may also convince themselves smoking is not as bad as the experts say it is. In addition, they tell themselves quitting smoking will lead to weight gain. All of this helps them reduce the discomfort of their conflicting beliefs.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 768 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/03/13 Category Sociology Essay Level High school Tags: Childhood Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Parents begin teaching their children in the early stages of life, even while they are still infants. Establishing a schedule for feeding, sleeping, bath time and playtime are the first things babies learn and come to depend on. Providing mobiles that play music, toys that entertain, even parents who sing to their babies are ways in which help them develop into curious toddlers, and this is why the first and best teachers are parents. As babies enter the toddler stage, they demand attention and are very eager to learn. Parents encourage them to walk, teach them to drink out of a cup, and consequently, as a child grows, parents are the most important and constant influence in a toddlers life. They become to depend on parents for everything and learn through observance as well. Good habits take form in the early stages of a childs life. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Childhood Development" essay for you Create order Parents encourage early learning by setting aside time for their children. Reading a book to them every day stimulates word recognition, and soon they are able to tell you the story, word for word. They will look forward to this time and this, therefore, teaches them to be dependable. The way in which parents communicate with their children and show interest in what they are doing teaches them social skills. When parents inquire about their day, engage in conversation at the dinner table, as well as while driving in the car makes children feel important, and parents are teaching their children to be compassionate, while also showing them the importance of caring for others. I chose the place or a play place inside of a local mall, it was very easy to observe every part of child development such as cognitive, social-emotional, language as well as physical at the same time. I performed the observation on October 28, 2018, from 1 pm to 3 pm. Dallas an African American boy. He has curly medium length black hair with dark brown eyes and thin black eyebrows. His height looked around 35.5-36 inches that he may be a little taller than other early childhood children. He looks thin and has a full set of teeth inside his mouth, full cheeks, and a small button nose. When he first arrived in the room he used his hands to try to undo his zipper on his jacket, but he was having difficulty so I encouraged him to continue to try and unzip it before he grew frustrated and solicited my help, so I stepped in and helped him. He also understands the concept of counting and knows a few numbers. During meal time, his caregiver was trying to feed him balanced nutrient, but he seemed to have a habit which was eating only what he wants. Despite his caregiver mixed all the foods for avoiding his picky eating, he had remaining foods left on his plate, except for what he liked to eat. When discussing how children develop and the many phases and stages they go through, it is determined that there is more complexity to this field of study than one may think. A childs development can be broken up into different categories and age ranges. Dallas, a two-year-old would fall into the second stage of psychosocial development autonomy vs. shame/doubt. Having given Dallas this classification, one can use the accompanying guidelines and characteristics that are usually associated with Autonomy versus shame and doubt, in order to determine how his actions and behaviors, gathered through observation, correspond. Looking at development in terms of the social-emotional branch, Erik Erikson is a person who studies child development, and has classified children like Dallas, who are in early childhood development, as undergoing a time period of Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. As explained in the textbook, a child who is classified under the category of autonomy, is explained as being able to think and do for themselves. On the other hand, a child who is classified under the category of shame/doubt, is explained as they beginning to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, they become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteem, and feel a sense of doubt in their abilities. Dallass behaviors are more so of autonomy rather than shame/doubt. When asked to perform an assigned tasks if he does not feel like it he will definitely let it be known. Dallas also has a way of letting it be known that he is full, not hungry or just plain tired. His vocabulary and use of words is hit or miss, hes not an on cue type of toddler but when he needs to talk he will.
Philosophy has always been a part of my thoughts throughout my life, but it seems like I have never truly given as much time into these thoughts until this semester. Philosophy is something that is exposed on a daily basis and should be talked about. I think that it is interesting to talk about philosophical subjects with friends and family to learn more about their way of thinking, morals, and who they are as a person. This class has definitely widened my horizon without me even realizing that it was happening. Talking about different subjects, and learning about how my classmates viewed things differently, were some things that I would have never expected from a philosophy class. Ethics Ethics is best described as a system of moral values that is followed by human beings. In this chapter, I found myself connecting with Mo TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s statement about Universal Love. His statement followed his principle that everyone should have access to peace, food, and clothes. Food and clothes, I believe, are two basic needs that a human being needs on a daily basis. As for peace, I believe that it is something that all human being should have to feel in their life and strive for. This is something that I can definitely relate to because my family and I are constantly involved in making other lives better when things are rough for them. I was taught at a young age that not every one on this planet was as fortunate as I was, and I will forever be thankful for my parents for teaching me thisShow MoreRelatedThe Philosophy Of Philosophy And Philosophy998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPhilosophy is the attempt at answering or understanding the questions that the being who is philosophizing yearns to know or wishes to understand. The importance of what the philosopher wishes to know or understand is not a determinate factor in what it means to do philosophy. 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For a lot of practitioners, actual teaching has been reduced to action lacking of a rationale or justification. According to Alan Sadovick, the author of our textbook, a philosophy of education is Ã¢â¬Å"firmly rooted in practice, whereas philosophy, as a discipline, stands on its own with no specific end in mindÃ¢â¬ (Sadovnik, 2013, pg. 179). All teachers and prospective teachers haveRead MorePhilosophy And Philosophy Of Teaching999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Philosophy of Teaching Essay Assignment Mohsin Rasho Valparaiso University NUR 641 Ã¢â¬Å"I have neither given nor received, nor have I tolerated others use of unauthorized aid.Ã¢â¬ Mohsin Hussein Rasho Philosophy of Teaching Essay Assignment There are many students thinking about their future because they desire to be the great teacher or professor in the future. It is necessary
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ombudsmans Contribution to the Task of Ensuring that Government Decision-Making is Conducted in a Defensible Way The Parliamentary Commissioner for Adminstration (PCA) was set up under the Parliamentary Commissioner Act 1967 as a result of the Crichel Down affair in 1954. It was thought that pre-existing judicial and parliamentary remedies did not provide adequate redress for members of the public who suffered as a result of maladministration in central government. No action was being taken towards defective administrative workings, either because it fell outside the jurisdiction of the courts or because MPs did not have sufficient powers to investigate it satisfactorily. The Ombudsman stands asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These include extradition and fugitive offenders, the investigation of crime by or on behalf of the Home Office, security of the States, action in matters relating to contractual or commercial activities, court proceedings and personnal matters of armed forces, teachers, the Civil Service or police. The government has always resisted the extension of the Ombudsman system into these areas. Furthermore, Schedule 2 does not include public corporations, tribunals, the Criminal Injuries Compensation Board or, crucially, the police. A further important limitation, the system of making the complaint through a Member of Parliament, has been much criticised: it is thought that this Ã¢â¬ËscreeningÃ¢â¬â¢ of complaints does not serve the best interests of complainant. This is where direct access to the ombudsman is denied and the MP is made to be the middleman. The involvement of MPs in the process may mean an inadequate working system since MPs do not possess the power to investigate in great detail as to scrutinise the matter at hand to its depths. Another problem that is seen within the role of PCA is also due to the lack of power to award remedy. However, the fact that the PCA operates informally and privately has been thought to enhance his powers of persuasion. A good example is that of the Ostler case (1977), where the Department of
I argue that college education should not be free. While the cost of entering college for further study is really huge, many argue that college education should be free to prove everyone a chance to get a bright future especially for the poor, and some also wonder that going to college means going to success, they blame their failures to lacing of college educations . I disagree with these ideas and I insist college education should not be free because in the end, someone will pay salaries of professors, books, maintenance of campuses, whoever the one is, these costs can not be avoid. In addition, making college free would decrease the number of workers who do labor jobs and the number of people who tend to be occupied in mental works will increase, which might make these kinds of job more competitive. It is not feasible to make college education really free. Nothing in life is free. If people are not going to pay their college tuitions, then there must be someone else will be forced to. Colleges need money to hire qualified professors to give lectures, buy books for students, hire workers to build buildings. Every single thing needs money, if students who are going to study in college donÃ¢â¬â¢t pay their tuitions, it might be government, to afford these costs. Where dose government get money from? Taxpayers. It means if students donÃ¢â¬â¢t pay their college tuitions, then taxpayers are going to pay for them. I think it is unfair and even cruel. For those students who pay theirShow MoreRelatedShould College Education Be Free?1266 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Proposal: Should College Education be Free There are people who are in our nation right now that can t afford to go to college and gain the education they need to succeed. People have a deep conviction about this controversy. This issue has lead to the debate should the first two years of a college education be free. If college was free for the student the yes, it comes to the taxpayers to come up with the money. There should be rules and regulations in place and should be maintained byRead MoreCollege Education Should Be Free933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshave to attend a higher education school. In most cities, there are institutes that can get a person to accommodate a degree. These institutes are community college and technology centers. These institutes offer degrees for less money, which makes it affordable for anybody to attend who wants to. Recently, Obama stated that he is trying to make community college free for a student s to have the option to get a college education (Paquette). College education should be free fo r anybody who wants toRead MoreCollege Education : Should Be Free1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA College Education: Should be free In the United States of America, College education should be universal and free for all students. According to the department of education, the statics show that at least $60,000 graduate college student will be in debt after coming out of college, and if these college graduate attended an Ivy League even more will increase up to up ward of $100,000 in more debt even before these students get their first job. For these young college graduates,Read MoreShould Free State College Education?1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconcerning the possibility of free state college tuition. Since Barack Obama first mentioned the idea in 2015, conflicts of interest have arisen surrounding the debate. Many people think that free state college education would enable more Americans to receive and then use an education at a higher level than in years past. Other argue that there will be many disadvantages to free state college education that would far outweigh the benefits. Providing free state college education to all American citizensRead MoreCollege Education Should Be Free For All1787 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAbner Gelin Brittany Roberts ENC1102 05 November 2015 College education should be free for all in America Education is the engine that drives a society. There was a time when a high school diploma was enough to secure a well-paying job. These days are all gone as more and more employers require a post-secondary education to even be considered for a basic employment. Competition for employment use to be limited to the local market, but with the advance of technology, American workers have to competeRead MoreCommunity College Education Should Not Be Tuition Free998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommunity College Education Should Not Be Tuition Free Every year, millions of students graduate from high school and consider studying in community college. The main reason for them to choose community colleges over four-year universities is the affordable tuition, or they have undecided majors for their careers. Unfortunately, an academic article published in 2014 Ã¢â¬Å"How to Help College Students Graduate,Ã¢â¬ Kirp demonstrated, Ã¢â¬Å"American students are enrolling college in record numbers, but they areRead MoreShould College Free For Those Individuals Seeking A College Education?1526 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmillion people. One solution that has been proposed is to make college free for those individuals seeking a college education and to forgive existing student debt. Burrnie sanders, a current polition, said Ã¢â¬Å"We live in a highly competitive global economy. If our economy is to be strong, we need the best educated work force in the world. That will not happen if every year hundreds of thousands of bright young people c annot afford to go to college and if millions more leave school deeply in debt.Ã¢â¬ At firstRead MoreShould College Education And Universities Have Free Education For High Graduates?863 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Should college education and universities have free education for high graduates? Tuition should be free at colleges and universities for high school graduates because it allow graduates to have better employment opportunities, help graduateÃ¢â¬â¢s be debt free and help citizens that cannot afford to go to college the opportunity to go and have a better chance at life. By students going to college and obtaining a college degree open doors for graduates to earn a higher salaryRead MoreHigher Education At State Colleges And Universities Should Be Free For All American Citizens1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHigher education at state colleges and universities should be free for all American citizens. American citizens who attend State Colleges and Universities at no cost, will not solved all of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s problems that we face today, but maybe a good start. Supplying our citizens with free higher education is one of the best investments that our nation can make; these students will become the next generation of leaders, engineers, doctors, intellects, musicians and artists. They will be equipped withRead MoreTuition Free Public College Education1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnd Education for All: Tuition-Free Public College Education Everyone has the right to an education and education should be as accessible as possible to fulfill this need. Without an education, people are rendered powerless. Education gives people the power to go wherever and do whatever they want in life. This is especially true for higher education and a college degree is needed now more than ever. In the United States, in order to get ahead in a career or go up the social ladder, one needs a
There are an abundance of valid theoretical orientations to choose from in family therapy. For a family therapist to be effective, it is important for them to choose a theory they feel comfortable using. This selection process must involve previewing the different theories to see which ones match their own unique personal style of counseling. This paper will discuss and compare strategic family therapy, structural family therapy, and Milan systemic family therapy. It will also include a discussion on the major contributors, the history, and the specific interventions of each approach. History and Main Contributors of Strategic Family Therapy Ã¢â¬Å"Strategic therapy grew out of the communications theory developed in Gregory BatesonÃ¢â¬â¢s schizophrenia project, which evolved into three distinct models: MRIÃ¢â¬â¢s brief therapy, Haley and MadanesÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic therapy, and the Milan systemic modelÃ¢â¬ (Nichols, M. 2010, p. 141). These three theories were established at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto. We will write a custom essay sample on Comparison of Theory or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The main contributors to strategic therapy were Gregory Bateson and Milton Erickson, an anthropologist and a psychologist (Nichols, M. 2010). History and Main Contributors of Structural Family Therapy In the early 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, Salvador Minuchin assembled a brilliant team of therapists who set out to transform the then current family systems theory to better deal with the juvenile delinquency he observed. Minuchin believed that therapy should be more simple, tangible and action-oriented, rather than abstract, or subconscious. According to Nichols and Tafuri, Manuchin believed Ã¢â¬Å"the trajectory of assessment in structural family therapy moves from a linear perspective, in which problems are located in the identifiedpatient, to an interactional perspective, in which problems are seen as involving other members of the familyÃ¢â¬ (Nichols and Tafuri, 2013). MinuchinÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas became extremely appealing and popular because they are easier to grasp for the patient and the clinician and easier to execute (Nichols, M. 2010). As a result, many therapists flocked to Minuchin to be taught his contemporary ideas. Like a p endulum shift, there was a distinct move away from structural family therapy after its rise because it became the subject of many criticisms (Nichols and Tafuri, 2013). History and Main Contributors of Milan Systemic Family Therapy Milan Systemic therapy was developed by Mara Selvini Palazzoli, Luigi Boscolo, Gianfranco Cecchin, and Guiliana Prata and was based upon tenets found at the Mental Research Institute. The founders were attempting to assimilate the ideas of Gregory Batesons strategic family therapy with their own new research findings. This team of therapists decided to take a more collaborative approach with family therapy, believing the strategic family therapy route was too encroaching. Specific Interventions for Strategic Family Therapy According to Amini and Woolley, interventions used in strategic family therapy are symptom focused, and different for every patient. They are tailored to meet each clientÃ¢â¬â¢s individual presenting problem. The goal of the intervention is to change the way the family dynamic works around the presenting problem. Interventions are to be performed by a highly skilled clinician who can assert his or her leadership in the context of the family (Amini and Woolley, 2011). The clinician then discredits the controlling power of the issue in order to place themself as the controlling figure in the family. Interventions are goal directed, and can include specific homework assignments that the family agrees to complete. One general strategy is the use of paradoxical interventions. This can include prescribing the symptom to the family to exaggerate that particular symptom in them family and highlight the level of damage it is causing (Amini and Woolley, 2011). It can also facilitate a rebellion by the family against the symptom, helping them move toward a positive change in behavior. Specific Interventions for Structural Family Therapy Structural therapy employs the use of family mapping to display unspoken family rules, and dysfunctional patterns in communication. The main goal of structural family therapy is for the therapist to enter the family system and ultimately breakup and interrupt the dysfunctional relational patterns within the family, causing it to realign into a healthier pattern. This is accomplished by distributing and shifting the power to key members of the family, therefore, changing their style of interaction. Specific Interventions Milan Systemic Family Therapy With Milan systemic family therapy, the clinician uses hypothesizing, revolving questioning, and neutrality as they attend to the beliefs of the family rather than the behavior as effective interventions (Campbell, D. 1999). Interventions include the use of circular questioning to identify double-bind scenarios, homeostasis disruption, and invariant prescription. The clinician also helps the family understand and acknowledge the dirty game cycle, by providing insight into these common disruptive patterns. Therapy interventions also include identifying problems maintained by behavioral sequences and patterns of behavior. The clinician will help the family develop alternative dynamics by creating an environment in which new information is introduced into the family. Comparing Differences When comparing these three theories it is easy to find differences because each approach was developed in order to create a different therapy process. Strategic therapy is uniquely different from structural therapy, as well as Milan systemic therapy, in that the strategic therapist takes a much more direct and controlling approach with the family and their issues. The clinician strives to impose upon the family a new way of dealing with each other. This includes specific directives and homework assignments that will alter the way the family functions. The therapist also attempts to establish a level of control so that the family will honor his/her commands. For this reason, it is very important that the clinician establishes trust and confidence with the family early on in the treatment process to maximize the effectiveness of this approach. The structural family therapist will operate in a less commanding authoritarian manner. The clinician attempts to become part of the family system, instead of an outside entity, to alter the way the family functions. The Milan systemic family approach also has its differences from the strategic and the structural approach. With this approach, the clinician uses a more collaborative position, rather than the authoritative position. Differing from strategic theory, the clinician Ã¢â¬Å"wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t focus so much on attempted solutions but instead would ask about past and present relationships in the familyÃ¢â¬ (Nichols, M. 2010, p. 147). This would help to identify a network of power alliances that are passed on from generation to generation. Another major difference between these three theories lies in their differing ideas of how to solve the presenting problems. Ã¢â¬Å"The essential insight of the strategic model was that problems are often maintained by self-defeating patterns of behavior within the familyÃ¢â¬ (Nichols, M. 2010, p. 147). Conversely, a Milan systemic therapist would place more focus exposing covert conspiracies and reframing causes for strange behavior. The focus is also less on the presenting problem, and more interested in changing family beliefs (Nichols, M. ). Structural therapy places more of the focus on changing the governing family hierarchy and uncovering invisible rules that are causing dysfunction. The goal is to realign the system to a more stable, healthier pattern. Comparing Similarities Similarities and parallels can be found when comparing strategic family therapy, structural family therapy, and Milan systemic family therapy. Each of these theories attempts to include the family for the therapeutic process, believing the family is a rule-governing system that can be best understood in context. Another similarity is that these theories consider the idea that the presenting problem can serve as a function within the family. This idea is counter-intuitive and provided much needed insight into the dysfunctional family dynamics. These three theories also share a similar view of the family life cycle in that the system usually tries to find homeostasis and effects family functioning and behavior (Zeig, Gilligan, 1990). Lastly, these theories share the basic premise that the family is the context of human problems. This idea is completely opposite to Sigmund Freuds previously popular psychoanalytic theory. Conclusion I personally identified with the major contributors of the Milan systemic family Therapy. I believe the Milan systemic approach was a noteworthy advance in the field of family therapy and can be very effective today. I would find it natural to use circular questioning to identify Ã¢â¬Å"dirty gameÃ¢â¬ patterns, and double bind occurrences. I agree with the tenets of Milan systemic family therapy such as focusing on the family beliefs rather than the behaviors. I believe that our beliefs have a profound effect on our behavior, so if you change the beliefs, you will change the behaviors. If I can help a family correct their dysfunctional patterns, this would be a huge accomplishment. I can see myself modeling my counseling after this approach when working with compromised or dysfunctional families.